San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776 by Lieutenant José Joaquin Moraga and Francisco Palóu, two Spanish explorers. They established the Presidio of San Francisco and a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís (nowadays known as Mission Dolores). During the California Gold Rush a myriad of adventurers came to the city and the population rose from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. The first cable cars commenced operations in 1873. The majority of San Francisco’s Victorian houses were built, and civic leaders campaigned for the formation of Golden Gate Park. At 5:12 am on April 18, 1906, a major earthquake struck San Francisco and northern California. More than 75 percent of the city burned down and 498 people lost their lives. Over 200,000 people were left homeless. The reconstruction progressed rapidly and by 1915 San Francisco celebrated its rebirth at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition.